G for Genie
The articles about and history of Genie are cruel, but are only an insult and joke (a parody for evil people), so there are many references in the Wikipedia article about Genies.
Religious references to Genie
Jinn (Arabic: الجن, al-jinn), also Romanized as djinn or Anglicized as genies (with the more broad meaning of spirits or demons, depending on source) are supernatural creatures in early Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology.
Pre-Islamic Arabia, Jinn were worshipped by many Arabs during the Pre-Islamic period, but, unlike gods, jinn were not regarded as immortal. The exact origins of belief in jinn are not entirely clear.
In the Islamic sense, jinn is used in two different ways:
As the opposite of al-Ins (something in shape) referring to any object that cannot be detected by human sensory organs, including Angels, Demons and the interior of human beings. Thus every Demon and every Angel is also a jinn, but not every Jinn is an Angel or a Demon.
An invisible entity, created by God out of a "mixture of fire" or "smokeless fire", who roamed the earth before Adam. These entities are believed to resemble humans with regard to the need of eating and drinking, procreation and dying, being subject to judgment they will either be condemned to heaven or hell according to their deeds. But they were much faster and stronger than humans.
Related to common traditions, the angels were created on Wednesday, the Jinn on Thursday and humans on Friday, but not the very next day, rather more than 1000 years later. The community of the Jinn race were like these of humans, but then corruption and injustice among them increased and all warnings sent by God were ignored. Consequently, God sent his angels to battle the infidel Jinn. Just a few survived, and were ousted to far islands or to the mountains. With the revelation of Islam, the Jinn were given a new chance to access salvation.
Developed from various traditions and local folklore, but not mentioned in canonical Islamic scriptures, Jinn were thought to be able to possess humans; Morocco especially has many possession traditions, including exorcism rituals.
The composition and existence of Jinn is the subject of various debates during the Middle Ages. According to Ashari, the existence of Jinn can not be proven, because arguments concerning the existence of Jinn are beyond human comprehension. Adepts of Ashʿari theology explained Jinn are invisible to humans, because they lack the appropriate sense organs to envision them. Critics argued, if Jinn exist, their bodies must either be ethereal or made of solid material; if they were composed of the former, they would not able to do hard work, like carrying heavy stones. If they were composed of the latter, they would be visible to any human with functional eyes. Critics therefore refused to believe in a literal reading on Jinn in Islamic sacred texts, preferring to view them as "unruly men". On the other hand, advocates of belief in Jinn assert that God's creation can exceed the human mind; thus, Jinn are beyond human understanding. Since they are mentioned in Islamic texts, scholars such as Ibn Taimiyya and Ibn Hazm prohibit the denial of Jinn. They also refer to spirits and demons among the Christians, Zoroastrians and Jews to "prove" their existence. Ibn Taymiyya believed the Jinn to be generally "ignorant, untruthful, oppressive and treacherous". He held that the Jinn account for much of the "magic" that is perceived by humans, cooperating with magicians to lift items in the air, delivering hidden truths to fortune tellers, and mimicking the voices of deceased humans during seances.
Later Sufi traditions related the meaning of Jinn back to its origin "something that is concealed from sights", thus they were related to the hidden realm, including angels from the heavenly realm and the Jinn from a sublunary realm. Ibn Arabi stated: "Only this much is different-the spirits of the Jinn are lower spirits, while the spirits of angels are heavenly spirits The jinn share, due to their intermediary abode both angelic and human traits. According to some Sufi teachings, a jinn is like an "empty cup", composed of its own ego and intention, and a reflection of its observer. Because Jinn are closer to the material realm, it would be easier for human to contact a Jinn, than an angel.
Although affirmation on the existence of Jinn as sapient creatures living along with humans is still widespread in the Middle Eastern world, modernist commentators, on the basis of the word's meaning, refer Jinn to microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses or rather to undetectable uncivilized persons.Another interpretation holds that they live in parallel dimensions consisting of rays. Some modern interpretations regard them as literal creatures, but refuse them as being the cause of mental illnesses; they exist because they are mentioned in the Qur'an, but do not interact with humans.
Sleep paralysis is conceptualized as a "Jinn attack" by many sleep paralysis sufferers in Egypt as discovered by Cambridge neuroscientist Baland Jalal.A scientific study found that as many as 48 percent of those who experience sleep paralysis in Egypt believe it to be an assault by the Jinn. Almost all of these sleep paralysis sufferers (95%) would recite verses from the Quran during sleep paralysis to prevent future "Jinn attacks". In addition, some (9%) would increase their daily Islamic prayer (salah) to get rid of these attacks by Jinn. Sleep paralysis is generally associated with great fear in Egypt, especially if believed to be supernatural in origin.
The supernaturality of Jinn does not mean they are transcendent to nature, but that they appear so in relation to human's perception of nature, due to their invisibility. They are "natural" in the classical philosopical sense by consisting of an element, undergoing change and being bound in time and space.
Generally Jinn lack individuality and are thought to appear in mists or sandstorms. Zubayr ibn al-Awam, who is held to have accompanied Muhammad during his lecture to the Jinn, is said to view the Jinn as shadowy ghosts with no individual structure. But Jinn are also thought to be able to materialize in different forms and therefore may gain individuality, like Sakhr. They can shape into both animals and human. Black dogs, onagers and serpents are especially thought to be common temporary embodiments of Jinn. Except for the 'udhrut from Yemeni folklore, Jinn could not transform in wolves, because they were the foes of Jinn, disabling the Jinn to vanish. Associations between dogs and Jinn prevailed in Arabic-literature, but lost its meaning in Persian scriptures. Commonly associated with Jinn in humanform are the Si'lah and the Ghoul. However, they stay partly animalic, their bodies are depicted as fashioned out of two or more different species. Therefore, individual Jinn are commonly depicted as monstrous and anthropomorphized creatures with body parts from different animals or human with animalic traits. According to Javanese Muslims, the original shape of the Jinn is thought of as a gigantic human-like figure.
In Guanche mythology from Tenerife in the Canary Islands, there existed the belief in beings that were similar to genies, such as the maxios or dioses paredros ("attendant gods", domestic and nature spirits) and tibicenas (evil genies), as well as the demon Guayota (aboriginal god of evil) that, like the Arabic Iblīs, is sometimes identified with a genie. The Guanches were the Berber natives of the Canary Islands before they were colonised and enslaved by the Europeans who claimed the island for themselves.
The protagonist of the Bartimaeus Sequence is a jinni, and the books have an established hierarchy that include other types of spirits: imps, foliots, djinn, afrits, and marids (to use the author's own spelling). In this interpretation, jinn and all other spirits are not physical beings, but are instead from another dimension of chaos called "The Other Place". To exist on Earth at all, magicians must summon sprits and force them to take some kind of form, something so alien that it causes all spirits pain. As a result, magicians must put measures in place to force spirits to do what they want in a form of magical slavery.
Ancient Mesopotamian religion Beliefs in entities similar to the jinn are found throughout pre-Islamic Middle Eastern cultures. The ancient Sumerians believed in Pazuzu, a wind demon,:147–148 who was shown with "a rather canine face with abnormally bulging eyes, a scaly body, a snake-headed penis, the talons of a bird and usually wings.":147 The ancient Babylonians believed in utukku, a class of demons which were believed to haunt remote wildernesses, graveyards, mountains, and the sea, all locations where jinn were later thought to reside. The Babylonians also believed in the Rabisu, a vampiric demon believed to leap out and attack travelers at unfrequented locations, similar to the post-Islamic ghūl, a specific kind of jinn whose name is etymologically related to that of the Sumerian galla, a class of Underworld demon.
Lamashtu, also known as Labartu, was a divine demoness said to devour human infants.Lamassu, also known as Shedu, were guardian spirits, sometimes with evil propensities. The Assyrians believed in the Alû, sometimes described as a wind demon residing in desolate ruins who would sneak into people's houses at night and steal their sleep. In the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, entities similar to jinn were known as ginnayê, an Aramaic name which may be etymologically derived from the name of the genii from Roman mythology. Like jinn among modern-day Bedouin, ginnayê were thought to resemble humans. They protected caravans, cattle, and villages in the desert and tutelary shrines were kept in their honor. They were frequently invoked in pairs.
Van Dyck's Arabic translation of the Old Testament uses the alternative collective plural "jann" (Arab:الجان}; translation:al-jānn) to render the Hebrew word usually translated into English as "familiar spirit" (אוב , Strong #0178) in several places (Leviticus 19:31, 20:6, 1 Samuel 28:3,7,9, 1 Chronicles 10:13).
Shedim, one of several supernatural creatures in early Jewish mythology, resemble the Islamic concept of Jinn. Both are said to be invisible to human eyes but are subject to bodily desires, like procreating and the need to eat, and both may be malevolent or benevolent. Like the Islamic notion of jinn as Pre-Adamites, Jewish lore also regard shedim as Pre-Adamites, replaced by human beings in some legends. Narrations regarding Asmodeus, an antagonist in the Solomon legends, appears both in Islamic lore and in the Talmud as the king either of the jinn or the shedim.
Similar to the Islamic idea of spiritual entities converting to One's religion can be found on Buddhism lore. Accordingly, Buddha preached among humans and Deva, spiritual entities who are like humans subject to the cycle of life, that resembles the Islamic notion of Jinn, who are also ontologically placed among humans in regard of their eschatological destiny.
The original Wikipedia article discussed on this page has been archived at: File:Jinn.pdf
References from Live Science
They often appear humanoid or even human but possess amazing powers we lack. They can change their shapes, can fly through the air, and even can render themselves invisible.
What Are Genies?
Detail of a relief showing a winged genie (jinn), from the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II, 722-705 B.C. Belief in genies has roots in Mesopotamian legends. Credit: Prisma/Newscom Genies (or jinn, as they are better known in the Arabic world) are supernatural beings with roots in ancient Mesopotamian legends. Jinn, however, are not the lamp-dwelling, wish-granting benevolent servants that Westerners know from popular culture.
The image that most Americans probably have of genies comes from the 1960s sitcom "I Dream of Jeannie" or the animated big blue Robin Williams-voiced wiseacre in Disney's "Aladdin." More recently, in the television adaptation of Neil Gaiman's 2001 novel "American Gods," audiences have come to know a cab-driving jinn who switches identities with an Omani salesman named Salim. (Salim had recognized the jinn from a story told to him by his grandmother).
Gaiman's magical, shape-shifting jinn is fictional, but belief in genies is widespread. In "Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar" (Counterpoint Books, 2011), researcher Robert Lebling noted that "Jinn are taken seriously and regarded as real, tangible beings by a large segment of the world's population.... They often appear humanoid or even human but possess amazing powers we lack. They can change their shapes, can fly through the air, and even can render themselves invisible." (Lebling is also the creator of a Facebook page titled The Jinn Group, where members share jinn stories and lore.)
Many ancient Mesopotamian demons and wind spirits were precursors to the jinn; Pazuzu is probably the most famous of them, thanks to its appearance in William Peter Blatty's novel "The Exorcist" and the classic film of the same name. Though belief in jinn predates the creation of Islam, the creatures are referenced in the Quran, the Muslim holy book — not as metaphors but instead as real entities whose existence is taken for granted. The Quran states that Allah created three types of beings from three substances: humans (made of earth); angels (made of light); and jinn (made of smokeless fire). There are said to be five categories of jinn; two of the best known are shaitan and ifrit, both of which are said to be evil.
Considered wind and fire spirits by Muslims, jinn are invisible to humans in their pure form but can take any form they please to suit their needs. Jinn, just like people, can be good or evil; they are born, grow up, marry, have jobs, raise families, live in their own communities and die, just like us.
Jinn are sometimes blamed for unexplained minor health scares, accidents and misfortune. For example, in 2000, teachers at an all-girls school in the Saudi Arabian city of Jeddah began having mysterious fits and seizures. Though doctors attributed that incident to mass hysteria (a mild and harmless form of social contagion and psychological suggestion), many believed that jinn haunted the school and were to blame for the attack. In May 2015, nine elementary and middle school students at a girls' school in southern Madinah, Saudi Arabia, claimed that jinns had made them feel unwell, causing episodes of fainting and spasms. Nearly 200 of their classmates refused to attend the school for two days while medical authorities searched for an explanation.
Belief in the fire spirits is also common among elected officials in the Middle East. In 2011, nearly two dozen associates of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad were accused of summoning jinn to attack political enemies. One man, Abbas Ghaffari, was reportedly accused of summoning a genie who caused a heart attack in one of Ghaffari's rivals.
Cross-cultural currents Jinn share many traits with angels, fairies, ghosts and other supernatural creatures. Many Muslims believe in the literal existence of jinn, just as many Christians believe in the literal existence of angels. Just as Christian theologians have long debated the nature of angels, Muslim theologians have long debated the nature of jinn: whether they have physical bodies, where they live, how they interact with us and so on.
Like spirits and demons, jinn are said to be able to possess humans (with similar symptoms, including seizures, violence and speaking unknown tongues) and can be exorcised from the human body through rituals. Just as in Catholic exorcism rituals where Bible passages are read to the possessed person to drive the spirit from the human body, Islamic rituals often involve having sections of the Quran recited to the afflicted person to rid him or her of jinn.
Jinn are believed, like ghosts, to sometimes haunt buildings, homes and other locations, including sewers and drain pipes. Jinn are said to be repelled by salt and iron — a characteristic they share with vampires. As with many magical creatures around the world, stories of jinn are often told in the form of a boogeyman story. Children are warned to obey their parents and not to stray from the beaten path. Some jinn live in remote, wild places, and are said to lure children and unwary travelers to their doom — a trait shared with fairies of the British Isles, the Hispanic ghost-witch La Llorona and others.
In some places jinn are so feared that merely calling them by their name risks retribution, so euphemisms are used instead. This also has parallels to fairy folklore, in which the capricious creatures are often called "the fine folk" or "wee folk" to avoid offense. Whether jinn exist or not is less important than the fact that many people believe that they do. Legends of these fire spirits, like those of angels, fairies and ghosts, will always be with us.